Merge text comparisons make it possible for you to compare and merge text files, or text that you type into Merge. You can copy and paste text into Merge from other applications, or directly open and compare the text from Microsoft Office, OpenDocument, PDF and RTF files. Merge can also apply special formatting to XML and XHTML files (see below), helping you to see changes more clearly.
If you haven’t already, spending a few moments browsing the Instant Overview of File Comparison and Merging will help you quickly become familiar with Merge file comparisons. It might also be helpful to review the The Ribbon and the Toolbar: Making the Most of the Merge User Interface on Different Versions of Windows topic.
Performing a comparison
By default, an empty new text comparison tab is automatically opened when you start Merge. You can also open additional text comparison tabs by clicking the New text comparison button in the quick access toolbar (above the ribbon), the ribbon itself, or the toolbar in the old-style Merge interface. Alternatively, press Ctrl+L.
Two empty areas where the compared files will be displayed take up the majority of the window. You can type directly into each file pane, or paste text copied from other applications. Alternatively, above each file pane is an entry field that you can use to enter the path to a file that you want to compare.
Specifying the files to compare
To compare two text files, you can type the paths of two files into the entry fields or use the buttons on the right-hand end of the entry fields to choose files to compare.
The Browse button opens a file-browsing window and the History List button displays a drop-down list of files that you have recently compared. If you hold down the Ctrl key when selecting a file from the drop-down list, Merge will fill the filename fields for the other file panels with their corresponding historical values.
Click the button in the toolbar or press the Enter key when you have chosen two files to compare.
You can also drag and drop files from Windows Explorer onto the filename entry fields or onto the file panes.
As well as files on the local disk and network volumes, Merge is also able to directly access and compare files stored within Perforce, Subversion, Visual SourceSafe, and (local clones of) Mercurial and Git repositories. See Virtual File System (VFS) Plugins for more details.
Accessing other revisions of a file with the Versions button
If there are other versions of the file named in the entry field available for comparison, the Versions button displays a list of these other versions. You can open the same file in both the left and right comparison panes, then use this button to compare a file with an earlier revision of itself.
When the Options…▸Application▸Show file versions from SCM systems option is checked, Merge endeavours to find any other versions of the file you are comparing from the relevant configuration management system repository. If a Perforce, Subversion, Visual SourceSafe, Mercurial or Git URI has been specified in the filename entry field, Merge will search the repository from which it loaded the file for any other revisions. Otherwise, if a file has been loaded from the local disk or a network volume and is part of a client workspace, Merge will search the relevant repository for which credentials have been supplied on the Credentials options page.
If the Options…▸Application▸Show file and folder versions from System Restore option is checked, Merge will show any versions of the file you are comparing that have been stored by Windows System Protection or the Araxis Snapshot Service. For more information, see Accessing Versions Stored by Windows System Protection or the Araxis Snapshot Service.
Three-way file comparisons
In addition to two-way file comparison, the Professional Edition of Merge enables you to compare (and, for text files, merge) three files. Please see the Three-Way File Comparison and Merging topic for more information. The Professional Edition also supports the automatic merging of text files.
Comparing the text content of Microsoft Office, OpenOffice.org, PDF, RTF and HTML files
Merge comes with a number of filters that can automatically extract the text content from certain common types of files when they are loaded. This means, for example, that you can drag and drop a pair of Microsoft Word documents onto a Merge text comparison window and have the text comparison automatically extract and compare the text from those documents.
Merge includes text extraction filters for files from the following applications:
- Microsoft Word 97 and later (
- Microsoft Excel 97 and later (
- Microsoft PowerPoint 97 and later (
- OpenDocument text, spreadsheet and presentation files (that is, Writer, Calc and Impress documents) from OpenOffice.org and NeoOffice (
- Unencrypted Adobe PDF files (
- Rich Text Files (
- HTML files (
Note that Merge is only able to extract literal text stored in spreadsheet files. It is not able to perform calculations on spreadsheet cells.
These filters are all optional and not all of them are enabled by default. Thus, you can compare HTML and RTF files as they are, without conversion. The File Types options page can be used to configure which filters Merge uses and what sort of comparison is started for different file types.
When comparing text documents, it is usually helpful to have Merge wrap long lines of text, breaking them at word boundaries. You can choose this behaviour from the Display options page.
Note that Merge can extract text, but not formatting, from the above file formats. Merge is not therefore able to show you formatting differences. The text filters for these file formats are also one-way – text can be extracted from these types of files, but not written to them. Please also be aware that the filters have various other limitations. They do not, for example, extract bullet and paragraph numbering information from Microsoft Word files, and password-protected documents are unsupported. For some documents, it might therefore be preferable to open them in their native application and copy and paste text from them into a text comparison pane. This will have the benefit of preserving details such as bullet and paragraph numbering.
Finally, be aware that you can use these filters to compare documents of different types. For example, perhaps a client has sent you a PDF of a final version of a contract, created from a Microsoft Word document that you had previously reviewed. You can use Merge to compare the text content of the PDF and Word documents to be sure that they are the same.
Comparing XML and XHTML files
The XML/HTML drop-down menu on the ribbon, or the Edit menu in the old-style Merge interface, contains commands to reformat XML and XHTML files. Reformatting enables them to be compared more easily, affecting the appearance and layout of the files on-screen and how they are compared. However, it does not change the content of the files: whitespace is not added or removed, neither is content re-ordered. This means that you can see changes clearly in even the most densely formatted XML files, without sacrificing the fidelity of a true textual comparison. Reformatted files can be edited, merged, and saved as usual.
You can use the File Types options page to enable or disable the automatic reformatting of XML and XHTML files when they are opened in a new text comparison window.
When comparing re-formatted XML and XHTML files, it can be helpful to check the Show trailing CR and LF characters option on the Display options page. This will help you identify line breaks that are present in the original text files.
The file comparison display
Two sample text files (
test2.txt) are provided in the Merge installation directory. The following screenshot shows the results of a file comparison between these two files.
Changes between the two files are highlighted with colours and linking lines. Linking lines in the centre panel of the file comparison window connect related changes to show exactly how the files are related. You can modify the colours and fonts used in the file comparison window by using the controls in the Fonts and Colours options page.
A summary of the number of removals, insertions and changes that were found between the compared files is shown in the status bar at the bottom of the main Merge application window. The current line and column number for the editing caret is also displayed.
You can use the Two-way (horizontal) or Two-way (vertical) buttons in the ribbon or toolbar (or the F11 and F12 keys) to change the layout of the files within the file comparison window so that the compared files are displayed one above the other or side-by-side (the default).
There are many options that you can set to customize how Merge compares and displays files. There are help topics that will enable you learn how to customize Merge so that it produces the best results for you.
As you scroll one file up and down using its scroll bar, the other file is scrolled so that the two files remain aligned in the centre of the display. The centre point marker (a line of small indentations in the centre of the linking lines panel) indicates the point at which Merge tries to keep related parts of the files aligned. You can temporarily prevent Merge from keeping both files aligned by holding down the Ctrl key whilst scrolling. When you release Ctrl, the files will snap back into alignment.
The small Previous change and Next change buttons below the scroll bars can be used to jump to the previous or next change.
There are thin overview strips next to the vertical scroll bars at the left and right edges of the file comparison window. These contain markings to indicate the position of changes within the compared files. You can quickly navigate to a change by clicking on the marks in the strip.
You can use the cursor keys to navigate within a file after clicking within it to give it keyboard focus. The following navigation shortcut keys are also available:
- Ctrl+Page Up (or F7) moves the editing cursor to the previous change.
- Ctrl+Page Down (or F8) moves the editing cursor to the next change.
- Ctrl+← and Ctrl+→ moves the editing cursor left and right in word steps.
- Ctrl+Home and Ctrl+End moves the editing cursor to the beginning or end of the file.
- Ctrl+G displays a window that you can use to navigate to a specific line number.
For a full list of keyboard shortcuts, see File Comparison Keyboard Shortcuts.
Merge supports mice with wheels. If you have a three-button mouse, you can click within a file panel with the middle mouse button to enter a panning mode. The file will scroll in the direction you move the mouse. To stop panning, click the middle mouse button again. If your mouse has a wheel, you can use it to scroll up and down within the active file. If your mouse or keyboard has backwards and forwards buttons, you can use them to navigate to the previous or next change.
Unicode/MBCS character encodings and code pages
Merge can compare files encoded with Unicode or MBCS character encodings as well as ASCII files. For MBCS files, Merge can compare files even if they were saved using a codepage different to your default codepage. Please see Working with Character Encodings for more information.
Searching for text
You can search for text in the active file by pressing Ctrl+F or by clicking the Find button in the ribbon. In the old-style Merge user interface, you can choose the Edit▸Find… menu item.
Switching between multiple file comparisons
Merge allows you to work with multiple file comparisons open at the same time. A tab strip along the top of the application window allows you to switch between file comparisons with a single mouse click.
Bookmarks and comments
As you are comparing or editing files, you might want to set bookmarks to enable you to return to locations of interest later on. Press Ctrl+F2, or click Toggle bookmark in the ribbon or toolbar, to toggle a bookmark on or off on the current line. To navigate between bookmarks, press F2 or Shift+F2, or use the Next bookmark and Previous bookmark buttons in the ribbon or toolbar.
Comments can be added to bookmarks, making it easy to note important information or to record a question. To edit a bookmark’s comment, right-click the bookmark and choose the Edit Comment menu item. Bookmark comments are shown as tooltips when you hover the mouse pointer over a bookmark.
Bookmarks and comments are included when you create an HTML comparison report or save a comparison for archival or team collaboration. They are therefore a useful tool for asking questions or making notes in a comparison that will later be emailed to other team members for review.
In addition to the comparison features described above, Merge enables you to edit and merge the files being compared. Please see the Editing Files topic for more information.
Merge provides syntax colouring support for a variety of programming languages:
|C/C++/Obj-C||.c, .cc, .cpp, .cxx, .h, .hh, .hpp, .hxx, .sma, .m, .mm|
|Windows resources||.rc, .rc2, .dlg|
|Flash||.as, .asc, .jsfl|
|VB||.vb, .bas, .frm, .cls, .ctl, .pag, .dsr, .dob|
|Pascal/Delphi||.dpr, .dpk, .pas, .dfm, .inc, .pp|
|HTML/XML/PHP/VXML||.html, .htm, .asp, .shtml, .htd, .php3, .phtml, .php, .htt, .cfm, .tpl, .dtd, .hta, .vxml, .xml, .xsl, .xslt, .svg, .xul, .xsd, .dtd, .axl, .xrc, .rdf, .vcproj, .wxs, .wxi, .docbook|
|Caml/OCaml/F#/SML||.caml, .ml, .mli, .fs, .fsi|
|Fortran||.f90, .f95, .f2k, .f, .for|
|Lisp||.lsp, .lisp, .csm, .smd, .ss|
|Perl||.pl, .pm, .cgi, .pod|
|Python||.py, .pyw, SConstruct, SConscript|
|Visual DataFlex (using the Smalltalk parser)||.src, .pkg|
|SQL||.sql, .spec, .body, .sps, .spb, .sf, .sp|
Syntax highlighting can be enabled (and colours configured) using the controls in the Syntax Highlighting options page. File extensions and keywords for each language can be changed by editing the
highlight.styles file in the Merge installation directory.